SEC Filings

20-F
WNS (HOLDINGS) LTD filed this Form 20-F on 05/16/2018
Entire Document
 


Table of Contents

Jersey courts cannot enter into the merits of the foreign judgment and cannot act as a court of appeal or review over the foreign courts. It is doubtful whether an original action based on US federal securities laws can be brought before Jersey courts. A plaintiff who is not resident in Jersey may be required to provide security for costs in the event of proceedings being initiated in Jersey. There is uncertainty as to whether the courts of Jersey would:

 

    recognize or enforce judgments of US courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the US or any state in the US; or

 

    entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the federal securities laws of the US or any state in the US.

In India, recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments is provided for under Section 13 and Section 44A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (India) (the “Civil Code”), as amended. Section 44A of the Civil Code provides that where a foreign judgment has been rendered by a superior court in any country or territory outside India which the Indian government has by notification declared to be a reciprocating territory, such foreign judgment may be enforced in India by proceedings in execution as if the judgment had been rendered by a competent court in India. However, Section 44A of the Civil Code is applicable only to monetary decrees not being in the nature of amounts payable in respect of taxes or other charges of a similar nature or in respect of fines or other penalties and does not include arbitration awards. The US has not been declared by the Indian government to be a reciprocating territory for the purposes of Section 44A of the Civil Code. Accordingly, a judgment of a foreign court, which is not a court in a reciprocating territory, may be enforced in India only by a fresh suit instituted in a court of India and not by proceedings in execution. Furthermore, the execution of the foreign decree under Section 44A of the Civil Code is also subject to the exception under Section 13 of the Civil Code, as discussed below.

Section 13 of the Civil Code, states that a foreign judgment is conclusive as to any matter directly adjudicated upon except:

 

    where the judgment has not been pronounced by a court of competent jurisdiction;

 

    where the judgment has not been given on the merits of the case;

 

    where it appears on the face of the proceedings that the judgment is founded on an incorrect view of international law or a refusal to recognize the law of India in cases where such law is applicable;

 

    where the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained were opposed to natural justice;

 

    where the judgment has been obtained by fraud; or

 

    where the judgment sustains a claim founded on a breach of any law in force in India.

The suit must be brought in India within three years from the date of the judgment in the same manner as any other suit filed to enforce a civil liability in India. It is unlikely that a court in India would award damages on the same basis as a foreign court if an action is brought in India. Furthermore, it is unlikely that an Indian court would enforce foreign judgments if it viewed the amount of damages awarded as excessive or inconsistent with public policy in India. A party seeking to enforce a foreign judgment in India is required to obtain prior approval from the Reserve Bank of India under the Indian Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999, to repatriate any amount recovered pursuant to such execution and such amount may be subject to tax in accordance with applicable laws. Any judgment in a foreign currency would be converted into Indian rupees on the date of judgment and not on the date of payment. We cannot predict whether a suit brought in a court in India will be disposed of in a timely manner.

 

79