|WNS (HOLDINGS) LTD filed this Form 20-F on 05/16/2018|
Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedge Accounting
We are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on foreign currency assets, liabilities, net investment in foreign operations, forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currency and fluctuation in interest rates. We limit the effect of foreign exchange rate fluctuation by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. We enter into derivative financial instruments where the counter party is a bank. We use derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward, option contracts, currency swaps and interest rate swaps to hedge certain foreign currency and interest rate exposures. Forward and option contracts on various foreign currencies are entered into to manage the foreign currency exchange rate risk on forecasted transactions denominated in foreign currencies and monetary assets and liabilities held in non-functional currencies. Interest rate swaps are entered into to manage interest rate risk associated with floating rate borrowings. Our primary exchange rate exposures are with the US dollar or the pound sterling against the Indian rupee.
Cash Flow Hedges
We recognize derivative instruments as either assets or liabilities in the statement of financial position at fair value. Derivative instruments qualify for hedge accounting when the instrument is designated as a hedge; the hedged item is specifically identifiable and exposes us to risk; and it is expected that a change in fair value of the derivative instrument and an opposite change in the fair value of the hedged item will have a high degree of correlation. Determining that there is a high degree of correlation between the change in fair value of the hedged item and the derivative instruments involves significant judgment including the probability of the occurrence of the forecasted transaction. Although our estimates of the forecasted transactions are based on historical experience and we believe that they are reasonable, the final occurrence of such transactions could be different as a result of external factors such as industry and economic trends, and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy and our internal forecasts, which will have a material effect on our earnings.
For derivative instruments where hedge accounting is applied, we record the effective portion of derivative instruments that are designated as cash flow hedges in other comprehensive income (loss) in the statement of comprehensive income, which is reclassified into earnings in the same period during which the hedged item affects earnings. The remaining gain or loss on the derivative instrument in excess of the cumulative change in the present value of future cash flows of the hedged item, if any (i.e., the ineffective portion) or hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness, and changes in fair value of other derivative instruments not designated as qualifying hedges is recorded as gains/losses, net in the consolidated statement of income. Gains / losses on cash flow hedges on intercompany forecasted revenue transactions are recorded in foreign exchange gains/losses and cash flow hedge on interest rate swaps are recorded in finance expense. Cash flows from the derivative instruments are classified within cash flows from operating activities in the statement of cash flows.
Fair Value Measurements
IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurements (IFRS 13) defines fair value as the amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arms length transaction. The fair value of financial instruments that are traded in active markets at each reporting date is determined by reference to quoted market prices or dealer price quotations, without any deduction for transaction costs. For financial instruments not traded in an active market, the fair value is determined using appropriate valuation models. Where applicable, these models project future cash flows and discount the future amounts to a present value using market-based observable inputs including interest rate curves, credit risk, foreign exchange rates, and forward and spot prices for currencies.
IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures also requires the classification of fair value measurements using fair value hierarchy that reflects the significance of the inputs used in making the measurements as below:
Level 1 quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 other techniques for which all inputs which have a significant effect on the recorded fair value are observable, either directly or indirectly; and
Level 3 techniques which use inputs which have a significant effect on the recorded fair value that are not based on observable market data.
The fair value is estimated using the discounted cash flow approach and market rates of interest. The valuation technique involves assumptions and judgments regarding risk characteristics of the instruments, discount rates and future cash flows.
Management uses valuation techniques in measuring the fair value of financial instruments, where active market quotes are not available. In applying the valuation techniques, management makes maximum use of market inputs, and uses estimates and assumptions that are, as far as possible, consistent with observable data that market participants would use in pricing the instrument. Where applicable data is not observable, management uses its best estimate about the assumptions that market participants would make. These estimates may vary from the actual prices that would be achieved in an arms length transaction at the reporting date.