|WNS (HOLDINGS) LTD filed this Form 20-F on 05/16/2018|
Business Combinations, Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets transferred, equity instruments issued and liabilities incurred at the date of acquisition. The cost of the acquisition also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. As a part of acquisition accounting, we allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to the identified tangible and intangible assets based on the estimated fair values on the date of the acquisition. The purchase price allocation process requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at acquisition date with respect to intangible assets, income taxes, contingent consideration and estimated restructuring liabilities. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made in the past have been reasonable and appropriate, they are based in part on historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain. Examples of critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired or may acquire in the future include but are not limited to appropriate method of valuation, future cash flow projections, weighted average cost of capital, discount rates, risk-free rates, market rate of return and risk premiums.
Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur which may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates or actual results.
Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the cost of the acquisition of the acquiree over our share of the net fair value of the acquirees identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities on the date of the acquisition. If the cost of acquisition is less than the fair value of the net assets of the business acquired, the difference is recognized immediately in the income statement. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually and when events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit is less than its carrying value. The goodwill impairment test is performed at the level of cash-generating unit or groups of cash-generating units which represent the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes.
We use market related information and estimates (generally risk adjusted discounted cash flows) to determine the fair values. Cash flow projections take into account past experience and represents managements best estimate about future developments. Key assumptions on which management has based its determination of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use include estimated growth rates, weighted average cost of capital and tax rates. These estimates, including the methodology used, can have a material impact on the respective values and ultimately the amount of any goodwill impairment. See also the discussion on impairment testing under Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets below.
Intangible assets are recognized only when it is probable that the expected future economic benefits attributable to the assets will accrue to us and the cost can be reliably measured. Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is its fair value as at the date of acquisition determined using generally accepted valuation methods appropriate for the type of intangible asset. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the estimated useful life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization of an intangible asset with a finite useful life reflects the manner in which the economic benefit is expected to be generated and consumed. These estimates are reviewed at least at each financial year end. Intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized, but instead are tested for impairment at least annually and written down to the fair value as required. See also the discussion on impairment testing under Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets below.
Software Development Costs
Costs incurred for developing software or enhancements to the existing software products to be sold and/or used for internal use are capitalized once the research phase is complete, technological feasibility and commercial feasibility has been established, future economic benefits are probable, we have an intention and ability to complete and use or sell the software and the costs can be measured reliably. Technological feasibility is established upon completion of a detailed design program or, in its absence, completion of a working model. Significant management judgments and estimates are utilized in the assessment of when technological feasibility is established, as well as in the ongoing assessment of the recoverability of capitalized costs. Costs that qualify as software development costs include external direct costs of materials and services utilized in developing or obtaining software and compensation and related benefits for employees who are directly associated with the software project. The capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life. Costs associated with research phase activities, training, maintenance and all post-implementation stage activities are expensed as incurred.
Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill is not subject to amortization and is instead tested annually for impairment and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Intangible assets that are subject to amortization are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the assets carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an assets fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the cash generating unit level, which is the lowest level for which there are separately identifiable cash flows. Impairment losses recognized in respect of cash generating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the cash generating units (or group of cash generating units) and then, to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the cash generating unit (or group of cash generating units) on a pro rata basis. Intangible assets except goodwill that suffered impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date.